What Is Z-Wave and How Does It Work?

What Is Z-Wave and How Does It Work?

If you’ve started automating your home or are looking into it, you must have come across Z-Wave. It is an efficient technology but not everyone understands what it is or how it works.

It was invented over a decade ago and is still one of the best technologies in home automation. Let’s take a look at how it helps with home automation.


Z-Wave Explained

Z-Wave is a wireless technology used in home automation to make communication between the devices in your home reliable and efficient.

All the smart devices in your home like lights, thermostats, smoke alarms and locks will be able to communicate with each other through Z-Wave.

It is what makes it possible for you to control these devices through a tablet or smartphone. You will be able to save electricity, stay comfortable and safe and take care of the people in the home thanks to Z-Wave.

It has been in use since 2004 and rapidly rose to success as it was a cheaper and more efficient alternative to Zigbee, the prevailing technology used for inter-device communication at the time.

It was bought out from a Danish company in 2009 by an American firm and consequently by Silicon Labs.

Z-Wave works on a 900 MHz band which doesn’t interfere with your Wi-Fi signal and is better at getting through walls and ceilings. The lower frequency uses less power and is more reliable when it comes to inter-device communication.

Its main competitor Zigbee uses a 2.4 GHz band, which is also used by Wi-Fi networks which is a higher frequency and might not be as efficient at penetrating all areas of your home.


How Z-Wave Works

To understand how Z-Wave works and what makes it so efficient, we need to understand mesh networks first.


Mesh Networks

In regular networks, the speed of communications gets slower the more devices you connect and the interference goes up. With mesh networks, you are able to skip these problems because they work differently.

Mesh networks actually get stronger signals and fewer interferences with more devices. Whenever you add a new device, it is weaved into the mesh and the pathways of data transmission are enhanced.

It becomes a repeater for the signal. The more devices there are on the network, the further the signal travels because every new device becomes a repeater. This works for all the smart devices in your house except the ones powered by batteries.

On Wi-Fi networks, all the devices using the Wi-Fi are connected to a central hub, which is the router. On mesh networks, the devices are all connected to a central hub but they are also connected to each other.

The devices don’t need Wi-Fi and use Z-Wave to send and receive messages from the hub.


How Z-Wave Functions

Now that you understand mesh networks let’s talk about how Z-Wave functions. With Z-Wave, all the communication between your home devices is completely secure and wireless.

You can control everything with a controller, which can be your phone, tablet, key fob or computer. Whenever you send a command from your controller, it goes to the central hub and then reaches the device through the mesh network.

The communication through Z-Wave is 2-way and completely wireless—you can change the settings at home remotely if you wish. The entire process happens in the background, you don’t need to do anything other than sending the command.

The network of your home automation system has its own network ID and all the devices have a node ID that keeps them secure.

You can rest assured that they can’t be manipulated from the outside and can’t be accidentally triggered by someone in the neighborhood with the same automation system as you.


Z-Wave Devices

There are 3 kinds of Z-Wave devices:



There are many different kinds of controllers for Z-Wave technology. Some of them are just regular universal remote controllers with added IR. There are also remote controls specially meant for Z-Wave networks.

They make controlling your home devices easier with dedicated keys for functions like streamlining groupings, selecting scenes and other common network functions. You can also turn your computer or laptop into a controller with an IP gateway or USB stick.

The IP gateway makes it possible to control your home network online, which is not possible with a physical remote controller. There are convenient apps for controlling the Z-Wave network for smartphones and tablets.



There are 2 kinds of sensors in home automation systems:

  • Analog: These sensors monitor atmospheric aspects like humidity, temperature and the concentration of gasses in the air is measured by devices like detectors of carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Digital: They use motion detection to keep track of activity like broken doors, windows or forced entry and issuing warnings for water leaks.



Actuators use both analog signals and digital signals. They are used for performing functions like dimming lights, operating automatic blinds, electric switches and thermostats.


Advantages of Using Z-Wave

Here are some of the main benefits of using Z-Wave:

  • Secure: The encryption used by Z-Wave is solid and it uses the AES-128 standard, which is the same one used by government organizations and banks.Devices like the August Smart Lock make your home extremely secure and give you real-time updates about the status of your home. You can rest assured that your home is safe whenever you step out.
  • Reliable: Z-Wave has been used in home operation systems for over 15 years now, so you can be sure that it works well. Thanks to the mesh network, the system is also stronger and more reliable with a greater number of devices.
  • Easy to Install: You do need a basic understanding of the technology used, but the setup is fairly simple and hassle-free.
  • Affordable: Z-Wave is more affordable than its competitors and the initial cost of installation and setup won’t burn a hole in your pockets. Adding new devices is also simple and easy.
  • Versatile: All major home automation players support Z-Wave. There are a whopping 24,000 devices you can choose from and over 90 million Z-Wave systems are already installed in homes all over the world.

Even LTT uses Z-Wave:

Wrapping Up

Z-Wave is a tried and tested technology used to communicate with smart devices in home automation systems. It has many benefits and is very reliable because of its use of mesh networks.

If you are interested in home automation, you should definitely check out the vast benefits of using Z-Wave in your home.